Important years – University of Copenhagen

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Introduction > About the University > History > Important years

Important years

Important dates in the history of the University of Copenhagen
A chronological list of the most important events in the University's history.

1419

Pope Martin V grants Erik of Pomerania permission to set up a Danish university, albeit without a Faculty of Theology. For various reasons, the plans do not come to realisation.

1475

On 19 June 1475, Pope Sixtus IV grants Christian I permission to set up a university in Denmark during the latter's grand tour abroad (1474-75).

1479

After thorough preparations, the University of Copenhagen is inaugurated at a ceremony in the Church of Our Lady, 1 June 1479. The University opens with the traditional medieval faculties of theology, law, medicine and philosophy.

1482

The University Library is founded when the Vice-Chancellor, Peter Albertsen, donates a considerable number of books, the first of several subsequent donations.

1533-36

The University ceases to function during the civil war known as "the Count's Feud".

1536

With the Reformation in 1536, the Lutheran Evangelical Church is established as the national church of Denmark and Norway at the recess of 30 October 1536.
The University of Copenhagen is accorded responsibility for training the Danish and Norwegian clergy.

1537

The University resumes its activities in the Church of Our Lady. It takes over the sizeable residence of the Bishop of Zealand, which stands opposite the church.

1539

The extremely comprehensive University Charter of 10 June 1539 sets the frameworks that will form the basis for the activities of the University for the next 200 years. Fifteen permanent chairs are established, all in traditional medieval subjects.
At the same time, a major estate and other sources of revenue are conferred upon the University.

1563

The Rector, deans and tenured lecturers are constituted as the Senate. This body retains ultimate responsibility for management of the University for the next 400 years.

1569

Frederik II founds Kommunitetet, a major scholarship foundation, on 25 June 1569. The foundation serves two meals a day at the University - initially to 100 students, later 120.
Four scholarships are also set up for trips abroad, which would have major significance for the future education of the University's professors.

1571

Frederik II bestows a new estate upon the University, 11 September 1571.

1618-23

Christian IV sets up the Collegium Regium, colloquially known as Regensen, which provides housing for the 120 students who receive the Kommunitet scholarship.

1620

Ole Worm founds his Museum Wormianum, a collection of natural history, archaeological and ethnographic objects, which became Denmark's first systematically assembled museum collection for academic study purposes.

1621

In an addendum to the University Charter, Christian IV introduces several important reforms and establishes new chairs, 18 May 1621.

1630-31

Christian IV expands the University's estates and creates two new professorships.

1636

A new professor in history and geography constitutes the first enduring addition to the University's academic range since the Middle Ages.

1642

The University's new observatory opens in the Round Tower.

1650

Thomas Bartholin publishes his discovery of the lymphatic system.

1654

The University Library is relocated to the room above the new Trinity Church behind the Round Tower.

1656

On the anniversary of the founding of the University (1 June), Trinity Church is inaugurated as the University church. The University Library is relocated to the space above the hall of the church.

1661-64

Frederik III founds the Royal Library.

1676

Ole Rømer presents his discovery of the speed of light to the Académie Royale in Paris, 21 November 1676.

1667-69

In his two theses, Niels Stensen establishes the modern science of geology.

1707

The University's first actual Master's degree in Theology is introduced in August 1707.

1728

The catastrophic fire of 20-23 October 1728, which demolished more than 60% of Copenhagen to the ground, has a devastating impact on the University.
The damage inflicted on the Library is particularly disastrous, with many Danish medieval history sources going up in smoke.

1732

The new Charter implements a number of necessary reforms, 31 March 1732.

1736

A proper Master's degree in Law and a more modest degree in Danish for lower-level legal officials are introduced in February 1736. For the first time, Danish law becomes a university subject.

1742

On the initiative of Professor Hans Gram (History), the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters is founded on 13 November 1742.

1788

The new and extremely comprehensive University Charter of 7 May 1788 forms the basis for the University's activities for the next 200 years.
The main emphasis is on the University's role as an educational institution. One tangible outcome is the new Master's degree in each faculty (Master of Theology, Law, Medicine, etc.).

1807

The British Bombardment of 2-5 September 1807 reduces more than half of the University's buildings to rubble.

1819

City architect Peter Malling is entrusted with the task of designing a new University building to replace the one that burned down in 1807. After lengthy negotiations between the government and the University, building work commences in 1829.
This marks the start of a building programme that would provide the University of Copenhagen with modern buildings throughout the 19th century. The programme has continued ever since, with increasing intensity.

1820

Professor Hans Christian Ørsted (Physics) publishes his discovery of electromagnetism.

1829

The Polytechnic College is set up by H.C. Ørsted, who serves as its first director.

1836

The University's new main building is inaugurated on 13 October 1839.

1842

The Academy of Surgeons and the Faculty of Medicine merge to form the Faculty of Medical Science.

1848

With the introduction of a degree in political science (economics), the Faculty of Law becomes the Faculty of Law and Political Science.

1850

The sciences are separated from the Faculty of Philosophy to form an independent faculty for mathematics and science.

1861

Architect Daniel Herholt's groundbreaking building in Fiolstræde is taken into service by the Library.
After two years of work, architect Christian Hansen completes a new observatory on the former city ramparts.

1871

Christian Hansen completes the construction of the University's new zoological museum on Krystalgade.

1871-74

The University's new Botanic Gardens are planted on the old ramparts.

1877

The first female student, Nielsine Nielsen, is enrolled in the Faculty of Medicine.

1888

The University's Geology Museum opens on the corner of Ø. Voldgade and Sølvgade.

1903

Titular Professor of Medicine, Niels Finsen, is awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine.

1920

Professor of Physiology August Krogh is awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology, and starts Danish production of insulin.

1922

Niels Bohr, Professor of Theoretical Physics, is awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.

1926

Professor of Pathological Anatomy Johannes Fibiger is awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine.

1940-45

During the German occupation of Denmark, the University manages to hold most of its classes and conduct research. Several teachers and students play an active role in the resistance.

1960

After steady growth, the number of students rise to approx. 6,000, a figure that quadruples over the next decade.

1968

Students demonstrate against poor study conditions at the University, and against what they see as old-fashioned and undemocratic governance. The government initiates a reform process, which in 1970, for the first time, leads to an Act governing the universities in Copenhagen, Aarhus and Odense. One outcome is unprecedented, decentralised and democratic autonomy, which enables non-professorial lecturers and students to influence the way their institutions are run.

1973

The University Act is amended, e.g. to provide non-academic staff with a voice at management level. The Act is also extended to cover all Danish universities.
The Faculty of Legal and Political Science is renamed the Faculty of Social Sciences. The Faculty of Philosophy becomes the Faculty of Humanities. The Faculty of Mathematics and Science becomes the Faculty of Science.

1975

Professors Aage Bohr and Ben Mottelson are awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.

1977

Numerus clausus, which was introduced for medicine in 1976, is extended to all higher education.

1992

A new amendment to the University Act strengthens the executive management and restricts staff and student influence.
The Copenhagen School of Dentistry and the Faculty of Medicine are incorporated into the Faculty of Health Sciences.

1993

The subject Law leaves the Faculty of Social Sciences, and the Faculty of Law is established.

1997

Denmark's College of Physical Education becomes part of the Faculty of Science, as the Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences.

2003

A new University Act represents a significant break with the previous form of governance. The elected Senate is abolished and replaced by a board with a majority of external members and only modest representation for staff and students. Elected figures are replaced by appointees at all levels.

2007

The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University and the Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences are incorporated into the University of Copenhagen as the Faculty of Life Sciences and Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, respectively.

2012

Four of the University's eight faculties (Faculty of Science, Faculty of Life Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences and faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences) merge into two large faculties: The new faculty of Science and the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences.